Expanded Demographic Norms for Version 3 of the Alzheimer Disease Centers' Neuropsychological Test Battery in the Uniform Data Set

Bonnie C. Sachs, Kyle Steenland, Liping Zhao, Timothy M. Hughes, Sandra Weintraub, Hiroko H. Dodge, Lisa L. Barnes, Suzanne Craft, Monica L. Parker, Felicia C. Goldstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Background:Norms for the Uniform Data Set Version 3 Neuropsychological Battery are available for cognitively normal individuals based on age, education, and sex; however, these norms do not include race. We provide expanded norms for African Americans and whites.Methods:Data from 32 Alzheimer's Disease Centers (ADCs) and ADC affiliated cohorts with global Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) Dementia Staging Instrument scores of 0 were included. Descriptive statistics for each test were calculated by age, sex, race, and education. Multiple linear regressions were conducted to estimate the effect of each demographic variable; squared semipartial correlation coefficients measured the relative importance of variables.Results:There were 8313 participants (16% African American) with complete demographic information, ranging from 6600 to 7885 depending on the test. Lower scores were found for older and less educated groups, and African Americans versus whites. Education was the strongest predictor for most tests, followed in order by age, race, and sex. Quadratic terms were significant for age and education, indicating some nonlinearity, but did not substantially increase R2.Conclusions:Although race-based norms represent incomplete proxies for other sociocultural variables, the appropriate application of these norms is important given the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy and to reduce misclassification bias in cognitive disorders of aging such as Alzheimer disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)191-197
Number of pages7
JournalAlzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1 2020


  • National Alzheimer Coordinating Center
  • cognitive test norms
  • neuropsychology
  • uniform data set

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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