Financial Hardship Impacts Depression and Anxiety Among U.S. Patients with Sinusitis

Vivek C. Pandrangi, Jess C. Mace, Kara Y. Detwiller, Timothy L. Smith, Mathew Geltzeiler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Mental health conditions are common in the United States, and recent efforts have examined the development of mental health conditions among patients with sinusitis. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between depression, anxiety, and financial hardship among patients with sinusitis. Methods: Cross-sectional study using the 2018 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Data regarding demographics, perceived financial hardship, self-reported depression and anxiety, mental healthcare utilization, and treatment compliance were obtained. Results: Among patients with sinusitis (N = 28 million adults), 9% reported depression and 24% reported anxiety. Sinusitis patients with depression and anxiety reported an increased severity of financial insecurity (p < 0.001). On multivariable logistic regression, worsening financial insecurity increased the odds of depression and anxiety. Patients reporting the highest financial insecurity severity had the highest odds of depression (OR = 3.88, 95% CI = 3.84–3.93, p < 0.001) and anxiety (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 2.08–2.10, p < 0.001) among measures of financial stress. Specific financial stressors were independently associated with patient-reported depression and anxiety. Sinusitis patients with increased financial insecurity were more likely to require mental health services and treatment (p < 0.001), but were also more likely to report cost-related treatment noncompliance (p < 0.001) and reduced access to mental healthcare due to costs (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Perceived financial hardship is associated with self-reported depression and anxiety among patients with sinusitis. Sinusitis patients with financial hardship also face challenges in accessing and maintaining mental health services and treatment due to costs. Understanding the burden of financial insecurity on mental health and access to treatment may improve quality of care through the development of screening tools and individualized treatment strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)491-502
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Rhinology and Allergy
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • anxiety
  • database
  • debt
  • depression
  • economics
  • finance
  • medication
  • mental health
  • quality of life
  • sinusitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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