Frailty Syndrome in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Diseases–What Do We Know and What Requires Further Research?

Marta Wleklik, Quin Denfeld, Magdalena Lisiak, Michał Czapla, Marta Kałużna-Oleksy, Izabella Uchmanowicz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) affect 60% of people over 60 years of age and are one of the main causes of death in the world. Diagnosed cardiovascular disease also triples the likelihood of Frailty syndrome (FS). FS has become increasingly relevant in cardiology and cardiac surgery and occurs in a significant number of patients with CVD, with prevalence ranging from 25% to 62%. Viewed in a multidimensional, biopsychosocial perspective, FS increases a patient’s vulnerability, making them susceptible to several adverse clinical outcomes. Frailty syndrome also is a predictor of mortality in patients with CVD regardless of age, severity of disease, multi-morbidity, and disability. Frailty syndrome potentially can be prevented in patients with CVD and its early identification is important to avoid the development of disability, dependence on others and reduced quality of life. The aim of this paper is to show the relationship between FS and specific CVDs (coronary artery disease, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, heart failure) and cardiac procedures (device implantation, cardiac surgery, and transcatheter aortic valve implantation). Furthermore, we highlight those areas that require further research to fully understand the relationship between FS and CVD and to be able to minimize or prevent its adverse effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2234
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 1 2022


  • Acute coronary syndrome
  • Cardiac surgery
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Frailty syndrome
  • Heart failure
  • Older adults

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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