Functional Connectivity in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease and Freezing of Gait Using Resting-State EEG and Graph Theory

Taylor J. Bosch, Arturo I. Espinoza, Martina Mancini, Fay B. Horak, Arun Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Although many studies have shown abnormalities in brain structure and function in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), we still have a poor understanding of how brain structure and function relates to freezing of gait (FOG). Graph theory analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) can explore the relationship between brain network structure and gait function in PD. Methods: Scalp EEG signals of 83 PD (42 PDFOG+ and 41 PDFOG−) and 42 healthy controls were recorded in an eyes-opened resting-state. The phase lag index was calculated for each electrode pair in different frequency bands, but we focused our analysis on the theta-band and performed global analyses along with nodal analyses over a midfrontal channel. The resulting connectivity matrices were converted to weighted graphs, whose structure was characterized using strength and clustering coefficient measurements, our main outcomes. Results: We observed increased global strength and increased global clustering coefficient in people with PD compared to healthy controls in the theta-band, though no differences were observed in midfrontal nodal strength and midfrontal clustering coefficient. Furthermore, no differences in global nor midfrontal nodal strength nor global clustering coefficients were observed between PDFOG+ and PDFOG− in the theta-band. However, PDFOG+ exhibited a significantly diminished midfrontal nodal clustering coefficient in the theta-band compared to PDFOG−. Furthermore, FOG scores were negatively correlated with midfrontal nodal clustering coefficient in the theta-band. Conclusion: The present findings support the involvement of midfrontal theta oscillations in FOG symptoms in PD and the sensitivity of graph metrics to characterize functional networks in PDFOG+.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)715-725
Number of pages11
JournalNeurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Issue number10-11
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • Parkinson’s disease
  • electroencephalography
  • freezing of gait
  • functional connectivity
  • graph theory
  • network

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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