Histological validation of cardiovascular magnetic resonance T1 mapping markers of myocardial fibrosis in paediatric heart transplant recipients

Seiko Ide, Eugenie Riesenkampff, David A. Chiasson, Anne I. Dipchand, Paul F. Kantor, Rajiv R. Chaturvedi, Shi Joon Yoo, Lars Grosse-Wortmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

61 Scopus citations


Background: Adverse fibrotic remodeling is detrimental to myocardial health and a reliable method for monitoring the development of fibrotic remodeling may be desirable during the follow-up of patients after heart transplantation (HTx). Quantification of diffuse myocardial fibrosis with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been increasingly applied and validated histologically in adult patients with heart disease. However, comparisons of CMR findings with histological fibrosis burden in children are lacking. This study aimed to compare native T1 times and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) derived from CMR with the degree of collagen on endomyocardial biopsy (EmBx), and to investigate the association between myocardial fibrosis and clinical as well as functional markers in children after HTx. Methods: EmBx and CMR were performed on the same day. All specimens were stained with picrosirius red. The collagen volume fraction (CVF) was calculated as ratio of stained collagen area to total myocardial area on EmBx. Native T1 values and ECV were measured by CMR on a mid-ventricular short axis slice, using a modified look-locker inversion recovery approach. Results: Twenty patients (9.9 ± 6.2 years of age; 9 girls) after HTx were prospectively enrolled, at a median of 1.3 years (0.02-12.6 years) post HTx, and compared to 24 controls (13.9 ± 2.6 years of age; 12 girls). The mean histological CVF was 10.0 ± 3.4%. Septal native T1 times and ECV were higher in HTx patients compared to controls (1008 ± 32 ms vs 979 ± 24 ms, p < 0.005 and 0.30 ± 0.03 vs 0.22 ± 0.03, p < 0.0001, respectively). CVF showed a moderate correlation with native T1 (r = 0.53, p < 0.05) as well as ECV (r = 0.46, p < 0.05). Native T1 time, but not ECV and CVF, correlated with ischemia time (r = 0.46, p < 0.05). Conclusions: CMR-derived fibrosis markers correlate with histological degree of fibrosis on EmBx in children after HTx. Further, native T1 times are associated with longer ischemia times.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardiovascular magnetic resonance
  • Diffuse myocardial fibrosis
  • Extracellular volume fraction
  • Histological validation
  • Native T1 time
  • Paediatric heart transplantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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