HIV rapid testing in drug treatment: Comparison across treatment modalities

Robert P. Schwartz, Maxine L. Stitzer, Daniel J. Feaster, P. Todd Korthuis, Anika A.H. Alvanzo, Theresa M. Winhusen, Lillian Donnard, Ned Snead, Lisa R. Metsch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Despite high rates of risky behavior among patients, many drug abuse treatment programs do not provide on-site HIV testing. This secondary analysis examined differences in outcome by program modality from a multi-site trial in which 1281 HIV-negative patients in three methadone programs, seven non-methadone outpatient programs, and three residential programs were randomly assigned to: (1) off-site referral for HIV risk reduction counseling and testing; or on-site rapid testing (2) with or (3) without risk reduction counseling. The parent study using generalized estimating equations with site as a cluster variable found significantly higher rates of HIV testing and feedback of results by 1. month post-enrollment for the combined on-site conditions compared to the offsite condition [RR=4.52, 97.5% CI (3.57, 5.72)]. Utilizing the same statistical approach, we found neither significant treatment modality nor significant treatment modality by testing condition interaction effects either for receipt of HIV test results at 1. month or for sexual or drug use HIV-risk behaviors at 6-month follow-up. On-site HIV testing is effective across treatment modalities for achieving high rates of testing and results feedback. All programs should be encouraged to adopt or expand this service.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)369-374
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2013


  • Drug treatment programs
  • HIV rapid testing
  • HIV risk behavior

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Phychiatric Mental Health
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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