BACKGROUND. Linomide, Figure 1, produces robust and consistent in vivo growth inhibition of prostate cancer models via its anti-angiogenic activity and inhibition of autoimmune encephalomyelitis models of multiple sclerosis (MS). MS clinical trials were discontinued because of unacceptable toxicity, due to dose-dependent induction of proinflammation. METHODS. Therefore, linomide analogs were initially screened to determine their in vivo potency to inhibit growth of the Dunning R-3327 AT-1 rat prostate cancer model in rats and their potency to inhibit angiogenesis in a Matrigel assay in mice. RESULTS. Based upon its superior potency (i.e., 30- to 60-fold more potent than linomide) in these assays and its lack of a proinflammation in the Beagle-dog, ABR-215050 (tasquinimod), Figure 1, was characterized for dose-response ability to inhibit the growth of a series of four additional human and rodent prostate cancer models in mice. Pharmacokinetic analysis following oral dosing documented that blood and tumor tissue levels of ABR-215050 as low as 0.5-1 μM are therapeutically effective. This efficacy is correlated with inhibition of angiogenesis in a variety of assays (endothelial capillary tube formation, aortic ring assay, chorioallantoic membrane assay, real-time tumor blood flow and PO2 measurements, tumor blood vessel density, and tumor hypoxic and apoptotic fractions). CONCLUSIONS. Based upon its robust and consistent anti-angiogenic activity and thus tumor growth, ABR-215050 has entered clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer.
- Prostate cancer
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