Influence of photoinitiator type on the rate of polymerization, degree of conversion, hardness and yellowing of dental resin composites

Luis Felipe J. Schneider, Carmem S.C. Pfeifer, Simonides Consani, Scott A. Prahl, Jack L. Ferracane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

154 Scopus citations


Objectives: To evaluate the degree of conversion (DC), maximum rate of polymerization (Rpmax), Knoop hardness (KHN) and yellowing (b-value) of resin composites formulated with phenylpropanedione (PPD), camphorquinone (CQ), or CQ/PPD at different concentrations. The hypotheses tested were (i) PPD or CQ/PPD would produce less Rpmax and yellowing than CQ alone without affecting DC and KHN, and (ii) Rpmax, DC, and KHN would be directly related to the absorbed power density (PDabs). Methods: CQ/amine, PPD/amine and CQ/PPD/amine were used at low, intermediate and high concentrations in experimental composites. Photoinitiator absorption and halogen-light emission were measured using a spectrophotometer, Rp with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), DC with DSC and FTIR, KHN with Knoop indentation; and color with a chromameter. The results were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)/Student-Newman-Keul's test (p < 0.05). Correlation tests were carried out between PDabs and each of DC, Rpmax and KHN. Results: The PDabs increased with photoinitiator concentration and PPD samples had the lowest values. In general, maximum DC was comparable at intermediate concentration, while Rpmax and KHN required higher concentrations. DC was similar for all photoinitiators, but Rpmax was lower with PPD and CQ/PPD. PPD produced the lowest KHN. Yellowing increased with photoinitiator concentration. PPD did not reduce yellowing at intermediate and/or high concentrations, compared to CQ-formulations. PDabs showed significant correlations with DC, Rpmax and KHN. Conclusion: PPD or CQ/PPD reduced Rpmax in experimental composites without affecting the DC. The use of PPD did not reduce yellowing, but reduced KHN. DC, Rpmax and KHN were dependent on PDabs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1169-1177
Number of pages9
JournalDental Materials
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2008


  • Camphorquinone
  • Color
  • Molar extinction coefficient
  • Photoinitiators
  • Photon absorption
  • Polymerization
  • Reaction kinetics
  • Resin composite

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • General Dentistry
  • Mechanics of Materials


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