Innovative growth and development of a neurological surgery residency cadaveric skull base simulation training program: A single institution experience

Brandi W. Pang, James ‘Obi’ Obayashi, Bryan Schreiner, Robert Unger, Shirley McCartney, Jackie Dingman, Nathan R. Selden, Justin S. Cetas, Aclan Dogan, Jeremy N. Ciporen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: Neurosurgical cadaveric and simulation training is a valuable opportunity for residents and fellows to develop as neurosurgeons, further neuroanatomy knowledge, and develop decision-making and technical expertise. The authors describe the growth and development of Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) Department of Neurological Surgery (NSG) resident hands-on simulation skull base course and provide details of course layout and setup. Methods: A three-part surgical simulation series was created to provide training in cadaveric skull base procedures. Course objectives were outlined for participants. Residents participated in NSG hands-on simulation courses (years 2015–2020) and completed annual course curriculum and anonymous course evaluations, which included free text reviews. Courses were evaluated by Likert scale analysis within Python, and free text was quantified using Valence Aware Dictionary for sEntiment Reasoning (VADER). Descriptive statistics were calculated and plotted using Python's Seaborn and Matplotlib library modules. Results: Analysis included 162 skull base (anterior fossa, middle fossa and lateral, and endoscopic endonasal-based) simulation course evaluations. Resident responses were overwhelmingly positive. Likert responses demonstrated high average responses for each question (4.62 ± 0.56 and above). A positive attitude about simulation courses is supported by an average compound sentiment value of 0.558 ± 0.285. Conclusion: This is the first time Likert responses and sentiment analysis have been used to demonstrate how neurosurgical residents view a comprehensive, multi-year hands-on simulation training program. We hope the information presented serves as a guide for other institutions to develop their own residency educational curriculum in cadaveric skull base procedures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number107585
JournalClinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • Cadaveric
  • Learners
  • Neurological Surgery
  • Neurosurgery
  • Residents
  • Simulation
  • Trainees

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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