Interleukin-10 contributes to reservoir establishment and persistence in SIV-infected macaques treated with antiretroviral therapy

Justin Harper, Susan P. Ribeiro, Chi Ngai Chan, Malika Aid, Claire Deleage, Luca Micci, Maria Pino, Barbara Cervasi, Gopalan Raghunathan, Eric Rimmer, Gulesi Ayanoglu, Guoxin Wu, Neeta Shenvi, Richard J.O. Barnard, Gregory Q. Del Prete, Kathleen Busman-Saha, Guido Silvestri, Deanna A. Kulpa, Steven E. Bosinger, Kirk A. EasleyBonnie J. Howell, Dan Gorman, Daria J. Hazuda, Jacob D. Estes, Rafick Pierre Sekaly, Mirko Paiardini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an immunosuppressive cytokine that signals through STAT3 to regulate T follicular helper (Tfh) cell differentiation and germinal center formation. In SIV-infected macaques, levels of IL-10 in plasma and lymph nodes (LNs) were induced by infection and not normalized with antiretroviral therapy (ART). During chronic infection, plasma IL-10 and transcriptomic signatures of IL-10 signaling were correlated with the cell-associated SIV-DNA content within LN CD4+ memory subsets, including Tfh cells, and predicted the frequency of CD4+ Tfh cells and their cell-associated SIV-DNA content during ART, respectively. In ART-treated rhesus macaques, cells harboring SIV-DNA by DNAscope were preferentially found in the LN B cell follicle in proximity to IL-10. Finally, we demonstrated that the in vivo neutralization of soluble IL-10 in ART-treated, SIV-infected macaques reduced B cell follicle maintenance and, by extension, LN memory CD4+ T cells, including Tfh cells and those expressing PD-1 and CTLA-4. Thus, these data support a role for IL-10 in maintaining a pool of target cells in lymphoid tissue that serve as a niche for viral persistence. Targeting IL-10 signaling to impair CD4+ T cell survival and improve antiviral immune responses may represent a novel approach to limit viral persistence in ART-suppressed people living with HIV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere155251
JournalJournal of Clinical Investigation
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 15 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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