Intrinsic signal optical imaging evidence for dorsal V3 in the prosimian galago (Otolemur garnettii)

Reuben H. Fan, Mary K.L. Baldwin, Walter J. Jermakowicz, Vivien A. Casagrande, Jon H. Kaas, Anna W. Roe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Currently, we lack consensus regarding the organization along the anterior border of dorsomedial V2 in primates. Previous studies suggest that this region could be either the dorsomedial area, characterized by both an upper and a lower visual field representation, or the dorsal aspect of area V3, which only contains a lower visual field representation. We examined these proposals by using optical imaging of intrinsic signals to investigate this region in the prosimian galago (Otolemur garnettii). Galagos represent the prosimian radiation of surviving primates; cortical areas that bear strong resemblances across members of primates provide a strong argument for their early origin and conserved existence. Based on our mapping of horizontal and vertical meridian representations, visuotopy, and orientation preference, we find a clear lower field representation anterior to dorsal V2 but no evidence of any upper field representation. We also show statistical differences in orientation preference patches between V2 and V3. We additionally supplement our imaging results with electrode array data that reveal differences in the average spatial frequency preference, average temporal frequency preference, and sizes of the receptive fields between V1, V2, and V3. The lack of upper visual field representation along with the differences between the neighboring visual areas clearly distinguish the region anterior to dorsal V2 from earlier visual areas and argue against a DM that lies along the dorsomedial border of V2. We submit that the region of the cortex in question is the dorsal aspect of V3, thus strengthening the possibility that V3 is conserved among primates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4254-4274
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Comparative Neurology
Issue number18
StatePublished - Dec 15 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • DM
  • Electrode
  • Galago
  • Imaging
  • Orientation
  • V3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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