Ion release from, and fluoride recharge of a composite with a fluoride-containing bioactive glass

Harry B. Davis, Fernanda Gwinner, John C. Mitchell, Jack L. Ferracane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Scopus citations


Objectives. Materials that are capable of releasing ions such as calcium and fluoride, that are necessary for remineralization of dentin and enamel, have been the topic of intensive research for many years. The source of calcium has most often been some form of calcium phosphate, and that for fluoride has been one of several metal fluoride or hexafluorophosphate salts. Fluoride-containing bioactive glass (BAG) prepared by the sol-gel method acts as a single source of both calcium and fluoride ions in aqueous solutions. The objective of this investigation was to determine if BAG, when added to a composite formulation, can be used as a single source for calcium and fluoride ion release over an extended time period, and to determine if the BAG-containing composite can be recharged upon exposure to a solution of 5000 ppm fluoride. Methods. BAG 61 (61% Si; 31% Ca; 4% P; 3% F; 1% B) and BAG 81 (81% Si; 11% Ca; 4% P; 3% F; 1% B) were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The composite used was composed of 50/50 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA, 0.8% EDMAB, 0.4% CQ, and 0.05% BHT, combined with a mixture of BAG (15%) and strontium glass (85%) to a total filler load of 72% by weight. Disks were prepared, allowed to age for 24 h, abraded, then placed into DI water. Calcium and fluoride release was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and fluoride ion selective electrode methods, respectively, after 2, 22, and 222 h. The composite samples were then soaked for 5 min in an aqueous 5000 ppm fluoride solution, after which calcium and fluoride release was again measured at 2, 22, and 222 h time points. Results. Prior to fluoride recharge, release of fluoride ions was similar for the BAG 61 and BAG 81 composites after 2 h, and also similar after 22 h. At the four subsequent time points, one prior to, and three following fluoride recharge, the BAG 81 composite released significantly more fluoride ions (p < 0.05). Both composites were recharged by exposure to 5000 ppm fluoride, although the BAG 81 composite was recharged more than the BAG 61 composite. The BAG 61 composite released substantially more calcium ions prior to fluoride recharge during each of the 2 and 22 h time periods. Thereafter, the release of calcium at the four subsequent time points was not significantly different (p > 0.05) for the two composites. Significance. These results show that, when added to a composite formulation, fluoride containing bioactive glass made by the sol-gel route can function as a single source for both calcium and fluoride ions, and that the composite can be readily recharged with fluoride.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1187-1194
Number of pages8
JournalDental Materials
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2014


  • Bioactive glass
  • Composite
  • Ion release

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials


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