Job satisfaction of paramedics: The effects of gender and type of agency of employment

Carol S. Federiuk, Kerth O'Brien, Jon Jui, Terri A. Schmidt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Study objectives: To document specific factors important in paramedic job satisfaction and job performance. Design and type of participants: A cohort analysis sampled 63 male public-agency paramedics and 131 private-agency paramedics (90 male, 41 female). Methods: Three scales from the Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire measured total job satisfaction. A four-item scale assessed attitudes toward paramedic job performance. Results: Fire paramedics reported highest levels of overall satisfaction, followed by male and female private-agency paramedics. Fire paramedics reported higher levels of intrinsic job satisfaction (eg, opportunity to learn new things) than private-agency paramedics. Differences in extrinsic job satisfaction (eg, pay, benefits) were even greater between fire paramedics and private-agency paramedics. Fire paramedics reported higher satisfaction than female private-agency paramedics with the social rewards of work (eg, the way they are treated by their coworkers). These findings were not explained by age, race, education level, and years on the job. Analysis of the attitudes toward paramedic job performance scale suggested that male paramedics are more likely to believe that female paramedics are not as capable of performing certain job functions. Conclusion: Type of agency and gender affect job satisfaction. Male public-agency paramedics are most satisfied, and female private-agency paramedics are least satisfied with their jobs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)657-662
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of emergency medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1993


  • job satisfaction
  • paramedics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine


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