Kidney Transplantation in C3 Glomerulopathy: A Case Series

Renu Regunathan-Shenk, Rupali S. Avasare, Wooin Ahn, Pietro A. Canetta, David J. Cohen, Gerald B. Appel, Andrew S. Bomback

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Rationale & Objective: C3 glomerulopathy (C3G), a form of glomerulonephritis associated with dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway, occurs either as dense deposit disease (DDD) or C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN). Few studies have reported outcomes of patients with C3G after transplantation since its formal classification and the advent of complement-targeting therapies such as eculizumab. Study Design: Case series of C3G. Setting & Participants: We reviewed laboratory testing, native and allograft biopsy reports, and clinical charts of the 19 patients (12, C3GN; and 7, DDD) from our C3G registry who underwent transplantation between 1999 and 2016. Results: During a median follow-up of 76 months, 16 patients had recurrent disease (10 of 12, C3GN; and 6 of 7, DDD), with median time to recurrence of 14 months in C3GN versus 15 months in DDD. Graft failure was more frequent in patients with DDD (6 of 7) than in patients with C3GN (3 of 12), occurred at a median time of 42 months posttransplantation, and was attributed to recurrent disease in half the failures. A rare genetic variant or autoantibody associated with alternative complement pathway abnormalities was detected in 9 of 10 screened patients. Treatment of 7 patients (8 allografts) with eculizumab was associated with variable clinical outcomes. Limitations: Incomplete testing for complement pathway abnormalities and genetic defects, incomplete records of HLA antigen matching, lack of centralized biopsy review, and limited sample size. Conclusions: In a case series of C3G transplant recipients, the proportion of disease recurrence was high in both C3GN and DDD, although graft loss appeared to occur more frequently in DDD. In a small subset of study patients, eculizumab therapy was not consistently followed by salutary outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)316-323
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2019


  • C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN)
  • C3 glomerulopathy (C3G)
  • allograft recurrence
  • case series
  • complement dysregulation
  • dense deposit disease (DDD)
  • eculizumab
  • glomerulonephritis (GN)
  • kidney transplantation
  • recurrent glomerular disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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