The microvascular rheology and extent of pulmonary retention of second-generation microbubble ultrasound contrast agents has not previously been well characterized. We assessed the microvascular behavior of Definity, a lipid-shelled microbubble agent containing perfluoropropane gas, using intravital microscopy of either rat spinotrapezius muscle or mouse cremaster muscle. Immediately after intra-arterial injection, which was performed to model pulmonary retention, larger microbubbles (> 5 μm) were entrapped within small arterioles and capillaries. The retention fraction of microbubbles was low (1.2% ± 0.1%) and entrapment was transient (85% dislodged by 10 minutes), resulting in no adverse hemodynamic effects. Leukocyte or platelet adhesion at the site of entrapment was not seen. After intravenous injection, no microbubble entrapment was observed and the velocities of microbubbles in arterioles, venules, and capillaries correlated well with those of red blood cells. We conclude that after intravenous injection and pulmonary passage, the microvascular rheology of Definity microbubbles is similar to that of red blood cells. Microbubble entrapment within the pulmonary microcirculation after venous injection should be negligible and transient. These findings are important for establishing the safety of this agent.
|Number of pages
|Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
|Published - May 2002
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine