Mismatch-repair deficiency testing plays a critical role in the identification of proband in Lynch Syndrome families and triaging patients with high stage or recurrent solid malignancies for check point inhibitor (Pembrolizumab) immunotherapy. We compared microsatellite shift patterns of microsatellite instability PCR analysis at 5 NCI recommended loci between microsatellite instability high endometrial carcinoma (n = 50) and microsatellite instability high colorectal cancer (n = 19). The endometrial cancer cohort included 45 endometrioid, 1 serous, and 4 clear cell carcinomas. Overall, 52% (26/50) of microsatellite instability high endometrial cancers showed minimal microsatellite shift (defined as a one to three nucleotide repeat shift at an involved locus) observed at least at one locus. Among microsatellite instability high endometrial cancers with minimal microsatellite shift, the frequencies at each involved locus were D2S123 (21/21, 100%), D17S250 (10/11, 89%), D5S346 (11/12, 92%), BAT25 (9/12, 80%), and BAT26 (8/21, 45%). Noticeably, 11 of the 26 cases (42%) showed only minimal shift. Among microsatellite instability high endometrial cancers with minimal microsatellite shift, 65% (17/26) had combined MLH1 and PMS2 loss, 8% (2/26) had combined MSH2 and MSH6 loss, 13% (3/26) had MSH6 loss and 15% (4/26) had loss of PMS2 by immunohistochemistry. In contrast, only 16% (3/19) had minimal microsatellite shift seen in colorectal cancer cohort with corresponding loss of MLH1/PMS2, MSH2/MSH6, or MSH6. Overall, 15% (7/50) of microsatellite instability high endometrial carcinomas showed isolated loss of MSH6 in contrast to 7% (1/15) seen in microsatellite instability high colorectal carcinomas. In conclusion, microsatellite instability high endometrial carcinomas have a significantly higher frequency of minimal microsatellite shift that coincides with a high percentage of combined loss of MLH1/PMS2. Microsatellite instability high endometrial cancers also have more frequent loss of MSH-6. Diagnostically, recognition of minimal microsatellite shift is crucial for accurate interpretation of microsatellite instability PCR data of endometrial carcinoma.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine