Young sarcoma survivors not only have to deal with limb function-related problems, but they also have an increased mortality because of therapy-related late effects. This chapter presents late complications commonly observed after surgical treatment for pediatric patients with musculoskeletal malignancy. Due to the advancement of treatments, the survival and quality of life of pediatric patients with bone sarcomas has improved within the last few decades. Despite these important improvements, these patients are still subject to further health risks; therefore, it is imperative for them to be closely monitored as adults. Health problems can persist once treatment ends, along with comorbidities associated with previous cancer therapy. Adequate screening, surveillance and prevention are needed to minimize the impact of late effects of cancer treatment. Long-term follow-up for childhood sarcoma survivors typically begins when they are in remission and fully recovered from the immediate effects of treatment. It is important for all survivors to continue to have regular medical care for life. Most survivors need long-term follow-up visits once a year with their family doctor, pediatrician, oncologist and orthopedic surgeons, although the schedule may vary considerably depending on individual circumstances. The survivor or their parents should keep a treatment summary of their primary treatment, and give them to the healthcare providers for follow-up.
- Limb-length discrepancy
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