Neoadjuvant Capecitabine/Temozolomide for Locally Advanced or Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Malcolm H. Squires, Patrick J. Worth, Bhavana Konda, Manisha H. Shah, Mary E. Dillhoff, Sherif Abdel-Misih, Jeffrey A. Norton, Brendan C. Visser, Monica Dua, Timothy M. Pawlik, Carl R. Schmidt, George Poultsides, Jordan M. Cloyd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Objectives The combination chemotherapy regimen capecitabine/temozolomide (CAPTEM) is efficacious for metastatic well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs), but its role in the neoadjuvant setting has not been established. Methods The outcomes of all patients with locally advanced or resectable metastatic PNETs who were treated with neoadjuvant CAPTEM between 2009 and 2017 at 2 high-volume institutions were retrospectively reviewed. Results Thirty patients with locally advanced PNET (n = 10) or pancreatic neuroendocrine hepatic metastases (n = 20) received neoadjuvant CAPTEM. Thirteen patients (43%) exhibited partial radiographic response (PR), 16 (54%) had stable disease, and 1 (3%) developed progressive disease. Twenty-six (87%) patients underwent resection (pancreatectomy [n = 12], combined pancreatectomy and liver resection [n = 8], or major hepatectomy alone [n = 6]); 3 (18%) declined surgery despite radiographic PR, and 1 (3%) underwent aborted pancreatoduodenectomy. Median primary tumor size was 5.5 cm, and median Ki-67 index was 3.5%. Rates of PR were similar across tumor grades (P = 0.24). At median follow-up of 49 months, median progression-free survival was 28.2 months and 5-year overall survival was 63%. Conclusions Neoadjuvant CAPTEM is associated with favorable radiographic objective response rates for locally advanced or metastatic PNET and may facilitate selection of patients appropriate for surgical resection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)355-360
Number of pages6
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • capecitabine
  • chemotherapy
  • neoadjuvant
  • pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor
  • PNET
  • temozolomide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Hepatology
  • Endocrinology


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