Normative Values of Muscle Power using Force Plate Jump Tests in Men Aged 77-101 Years: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

E. S. Strotmeyer, M. E. Winger, J. A. Cauley, R. M. Boudreau, D. Cusick, R. F. Collins, D. Chalhoub, B. Buehring, E. Orwoll, T. B. Harris, P. Caserotti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: To determine normative values for weight-bearing, countermovement leg extension ("jump") tests in the oldest men and characteristics of those not completing vs. completing tests. DESIGN: 2014-16 cross-sectional exam. SETTING: Six U.S. sites from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling men (N=1,841) aged 84.5±4.2 (range: 77-101) years.N/A. MEASUREMENTS: Jump tests on a force plate measured lower-extremity muscle peak power/kg, velocity and force/kg at peak power, with normative values for 5-year age groups and by limitations in moderate-intensity activities of daily living (ADLs) and climbing several flights of stairs. RESULTS: Jump completion was 68.9% (N=1,268/1,841) and 98% (1,242/1,268) had ≥1 analyzable trial/participant. Exclusions primarily were due to poor mobility and/or balance: 24.8% (456/1,841) prior to and 6.4% (N=117/1,841) after attempting testing. Peak power was 20.8±5.3 W/kg, with 1.2±0.3 m/s for velocity, and 16.7±1.9 N/kg for force at peak power. Each 5-year age group >80 years had subsequently 10% lower power/kg, with 30% lower power/kg at >90 vs. ≤80 years (all p<0.05). Velocity and force/kg at peak power were 24% and 9% lower respectively, at >90 vs. ≤80 years (all p<0.05). Limitations in both moderate ADLs and climbing several flights of stairs were associated with 16% lower age-adjusted power/kg, equivalent to 5-10 years of aging, with 11% and 6% lower age-adjusted velocity and force/kg respectively, vs. those without limitation (all p<0.05). Men not completing vs. completing jumps had older age, higher BMI, lower physical activity, more comorbidities, worse cognition, more IADLs/ADLs and more falls in the past year (all p<0.05). Post-jump pain occurred in 4.6% (58/1,268), with 2 participants stopping testing due to pain. Only 24/1,242 (2%) had all trials/participant without flight (i.e., inability to lift feet), with 323/1,242 having ≥1 trial/participant without flight (total of 28%). No serious adverse safety events (e.g., injury) occurred. CONCLUSIONS: A multicenter cohort of oldest men with a range of function had higher declines in jump power/kg and velocity vs. force/kg across each 5-year age group >80 years. Future research should examine age- and functional-related declines in jump measures related to physical performance decline, falls, fractures, and disability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1167-1175
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Nutrition, Health and Aging
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2018


  • Epidemiology
  • functional performance
  • jump
  • muscle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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