Pharmacological characterization of tardive dyskinesia

Daniel E. Casey, Duane Denney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

91 Scopus citations


Tardive dyskinesia (TD) may be a clinical manifestation of a relative imbalance between the inversely related dopaminergic (DA) and acetylcholinergic (ACh) influences in the central nervous system (CNS). Six patients were evaluated with single challenge doses of a DA agonist, levodopa, and antagonist, droperidol, as well as with an ACh agonist, physostigmine, an antagonist, benztropine, and a placebo. A single blind trial with deanol and placebo followed. Responses, measured by an electrophysiological technique, formed two subgroups. The patients who improved with a DA antagonist or an ACh agonist improved while taking deanol. Another group of patients were made worse with a DA antagonist or ACh agonist and were worsened or had no response while taking deanol. While the results add support to the concept of counterbalancing DA-ACh influences in TD, further investigation of TD subtypes and predictors of drug response is warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1977
Externally publishedYes


  • Acetylcholine
  • Benztropine
  • Deanol
  • Dopamine
  • Droperidol
  • Levodopa
  • Physostigmine
  • Tardive dyskinesia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology


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