The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of continuous wave, two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography for predicting pressure gradients across discrete subaortic stenoses. Twenty-three Newfoundland dogs with subaortic stenosis were studied by closed chest Doppler interrogation of aortic velocity from an apical view of the left ventricular outflow tract simultaneously with measurements of pressure gradient during cardiac catheterization. Continuous mode Doppler interrogation was used with two-dimensional echographic guidance (Irex model IllB) to compare the Doppler-derived maximal velocity with the pressure gradient across the obstruction at rest and after provocation with amyl nitrite inhalation and isoproterenol infusion. The maximal velocities recorded by Doppler ranged from 98 to 539 cm/s and correlated with hemodynamic gradients ranging from 3 to 123 mm Hg (r = 0.92, SEE = 37 cm/s). Doppler velocities were converted to gradients using a simplification of the Bernoulli relation (gradient = 4 × maximal velocity2); the resulting Doppler-derived gradients also correlated closely with the catheterization-measured pressure gradients (r = 0.95, SEE = 7.1 mm Hg). The predictive capability of Doppler echocardiography for estimating the pressure gradient across fibro-muscular subaortic obstructions in this group of dogs with a spectrum of disease similar to that found in human beings was validated. The results also indicate that Doppler methods may have clinical applications in patients with subaortic stenosis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine