Predictors of non-vertebral fracture in older Chinese males and females: Mr. OS and Ms. OS (Hong Kong)

Timothy Chi Yui Kwok, Yi Su, Chyi Chyi Khoo, Jason Leung, Anthony Kwok, Eric Orwoll, Jean Woo, Ping Chung Leung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Clinical risk factors to predict fracture are useful in guiding management of patients with osteoporosis or falls. Clinical predictors may however be population specific because of differences in lifestyle, environment and ethnicity. Four thousand community-dwelling Chinese males and females with average ages of 72.4 and 72.6 years were followed up for incident fractures, with an average of 6.5 and 8.8 years, respectively. Clinical information was collected, and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were carried out at baseline. Stepwise Cox regression models were used to identify risk factors of nonvertebral fractures, with BMD as covariate. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were compared among different risk models. The incidence rates of nonvertebral fractures were 10.3 and 20.5 per 1000 person years in males and females, respectively. In males, age ≥80, history of a fall in the past year, fracture history, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, impaired visual depth perception and low physical health-related quality of life were significant fracture risk factors, independent of BMD. In females, the significant factors were fracture history, low visual acuity and slow narrow walking speed. The clinical risk factors had a significant influence on fracture risk irrespective of osteoporosis status, even having a better risk discrimination than BMD alone, especially in males. The best risk prediction model consisted both BMD and clinical risk factors. Clinical risk factors have additive value to hip BMD in predicting nonvertebral fractures in older Chinese people and may predict them better than BMD alone in older Chinese males.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)330-337
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2017


  • Aged
  • Asian continental ancestry group
  • Bone
  • Fracture
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Endocrinology


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