Proximal junctional kyphosis and failure after spinal deformity surgery: A systematic review of the literature as a background to classification development

SRS Adult Spinal Deformity Committee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

211 Scopus citations


STUDY DESIGN. Systematic review of literature. OBJECTIVE. To perform a comprehensive English language systematic literature review of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) and proximal junctional failure (PJF), concentrating on incidence, risk factors, health related quality of life impact, prevention strategy, and classification systems. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. PJK and PJF are well described clinical pathologies and are a frequent cause of revision surgery. The development of a PJK classification that correlates with clinical outcomes and guides treatment decisions and possible prevention strategies would be of significant benefit to patients and surgeons. METHODS. The phrases "proximal junctional," "proximal junctional kyphosis," and "proximal junctional failure" were used as search terms in PubMed for all years up to 2014 to identify all articles that included at least one of these terms. RESULTS. Fifty-three articles were identified overall. Eighteen articles assessed for risk factors. Eight studies specifically reviewed prevention strategies. There were no randomized prospective studies. There were 3 published studies that have attempted to classify PJK. The reported incidence of PJK ranged widely, from 5% to 46% in patients undergoing spinal instrumentation and fusion for adult spinal deformity. It is reported that 66% of PJK occurs within 3 months and 80% within 18 months after surgery. The reported revision rates due to PJK range from 13% to 55%. Modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for PJK have been characterized. CONCLUSION. PJK and PJF affect many patients after long segment instrumentation after the correction of adult spinal deformity. The epidemiology and risk factors for the disease are well defined. A PJK and PJF scoring system may help describe the severity of disease and guide the need for revision surgery. The development and prospective validation of a PJK classification system is important considering the prevalence of the problem and its clinical and economic impact. Level of Evidence: N/A.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2093-2102
Number of pages10
Issue number25
StatePublished - Dec 1 2014


  • classification
  • complications
  • deformity
  • epidemiology
  • fusion
  • instrumentation
  • prevention strategies
  • proximal junctional failure
  • proximal junctional kyphosis
  • risk factors
  • sagittal alignment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology


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