Resistance Profile and Structural Modeling of Next-Generation ROS1 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

Clare Keddy, Pushkar Shinde, Kristen Jones, Stefanie Kaech, Romel Somwar, Ujwal Shinde, Monika A. Davare

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


ROS1 fusion proteins resulting from chromosomal rearrangements of the ROS1 gene are targetable oncogenic drivers in diverse cancers. Acquired resistance to targeted inhibitors curtails clinical benefit and response durability. Entrectinib, a NTRK/ROS1/ALK targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), was approved for the treatment of ROS1 fusion-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 2019. In addition, lorlatinib and repotrectinib are actively being explored in the setting of treatment-naïve or crizotinib-resistant ROS1 fusion driven NSCLC. Here, we employed an unbiased forward mutagenesis screen in Ba/F3 CD74-ROS1 and EZR-ROS1 cells to identify resistance liabilities to entrectinib, lorlatinib, and repotrectinib. ROS1F2004C emerged as a recurrent entrectinib resistant mutation and ROS1G2032R was discovered in entrectinib and lorlatinib-resistant clones. Cell-based and modeling data show that entrectinib is a dual type I/II mode inhibitor, and thus liable to both types of resistant mutations. Comprehensive profiling of all clinically relevant kinase domain mutations showed that ROS1L2086F is broadly resistant to all type I inhibitors, but remains sensitive to type II inhibitors. ROS1F2004C/I/V are resistant to type I inhibitors, entrectinib and crizotinib, and type II inhibitor, cabozantinib, but retain sensitivity to the type I macrocyclic inhibitors. Development of new, more selective type II ROS1 inhibitor (s) or potentially cycling type I and type II inhibitors may be one way to expand durability of ROS1-targeted agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)336-346
Number of pages11
JournalMolecular cancer therapeutics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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