Resuscitation with lactated Ringer's does not increase inflammatory response in a swine model of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock

Jennifer M. Watters, Susan I. Brundage, S. Rob Todd, Nathan A. Zautke, J. A. Stefater, J. C. Lam, Patrick J. Muller, Darren Malinoski, Martin A. Schreiber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Lactated Ringer's (LR) and normal saline (NS) are widely and interchangeably used for resuscitation of trauma victims. Studies show LR to be superior to NS in the physiologic response to resuscitation. Recent in vitro studies demonstrate equivalent effects of LR and NS on leukocytes. We aimed to determine whether LR resuscitation would produce an equivalent inflammatory response compared with normal saline (NS) resuscitation in a clinically relevant swine model of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. Thirty-two swine were randomized. Control animals (n = 6) were sacrificed following induction of anesthesia for baseline data. Sham animals (n = 6) underwent laparotomy and 2 h of anesthesia. Uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock animals (n = 10/group) underwent laparotomy, grade V liver injury, and blinded resuscitation with LR or NS to maintain baseline blood pressure for 1.5 h before sacrifice. Lung was harvested, and tissue mRNA levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were determined using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR). Sections of lung were processed and examined for neutrophils sequestered within the alveolar walls. Cytokine analysis showed no difference in IL-6 gene transcription in any group (P = 0.99). Resuscitated swine had elevated G-CSF and TNF-α gene transcription, but LR and NS groups were not different from each other (P = 0.96 and 0.10, respectively). Both resuscitation groups had significantly more alveolar neutrophils present than controls (P < 0.01) and shams (P < 0.05) but were not different from one another (P = 0.83). LR and NS resuscitation have equivalent effects on indices of inflammation in the lungs in our model of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)283-287
Number of pages5
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2004


  • Cytokines
  • G-CSF
  • IL-6
  • Neutrophils
  • Normal saline
  • TNF-α

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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