Daniel M. Albert, Amol D. Kulkarni, Amir A. Azari

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Cytomegalovirus retinitis Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the most common and clinically significant opportunistic ocular infection seen in immunocompromised patients, including those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). With the extensive use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, there has been a marked decrease in the incidence of CMV retinitis in these patients (23 per 10 000 HIV/AIDS cases in the pre-HAART era to 8 per 10 000 HIV/AIDS cases in the post-HAART era). The presentation of CMV retinitis may be unilateral or bilateral. The onset is insidious, and symptoms may include blurred vision, floaters, visual field defects, or other nonspecific visual complaints. Clinically, the various types of active chorioretinal lesions include (1) hemorrhagic pattern showing confluent area of full-thickness retinal necrosis with a yellow-white granular appearance and associated retinal hemorrhages; this has been referred to as a “pizza-pie” appearance (Figure 14.1); (2) “brush fire” pattern showing a rapidly spreading zone of retinal necrosis with yellow-white margin; and (3) a granular pattern showing areas of retinal atrophy amid white granular punctate lesions. In all of these clinical patterns vitreous inflammation is minimal or absent. Visual loss may be severe if the macula or optic nerve is involved. Without treatment, CMV retinitis will become bilateral in 80% of cases and eventually will result in blindness from retinal atrophy, retinal detachment, or optic nerve involvement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationClinical Infectious Disease, Second Edition
PublisherCambridge University Press
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9781139855952
ISBN (Print)9781107038912
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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