Risk factors for COPD

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


There is established evidence supporting smoking, occupational and environmental exposure to dust and gases, and hereditary α1-antitrypsin deficiency as risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Studies concerning the possible contribution of other risk factors for COPD have examined the roles of air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, respiratory infections, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, gender and genetics. Less clearly defined is the involvement of diet and racial and ethnic factors. A brief review of the known risk factors is presented here, together with an examination of current information relating to the other potential risk factors for COPD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)253-258
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Respiratory Review
Issue number39
StatePublished - 1996


  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Pollution
  • Risk factors
  • Smoking
  • α-antitrypsin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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