Sex and Racial Differences in High-Density Lipoprotein Levels in Acute Coronary Syndromes

Asuka Ozaki, Katia Bravo-Jaimes, Carmen Smotherman, Dale F. Kraemer, Alfred Samura, Gladys P. Velarde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: This study aimed to assess sex and racial differences related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in those presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Methods: Records from patients with ACS presenting to the Emergency Department of University of Florida Hospital Jacksonville from 2009 to 2012, were reviewed. Detailed medical history was obtained. HDL-C levels were measured within 72 h of presentation. Pearson chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare groups in univariate analysis. Analysis of variance was performed to determine independent predictors of higher HDL-C levels using variable selection. Results: Of 2400 patients screened, 614 (382 men and 232 women) met inclusion criteria. Hypertension, chronic kidney disease or prior CAD history was similar between sexes and races. Women were more likely to be older (62.4 vs 58.4 years), diabetic (56.5 vs 36.5%) and have higher body mass index (31.2 vs 30.1 kg/m2). Blacks were more likely to be diabetic (50.3 vs 41.3%). After adjusting for all clinical markers, women and blacks along with absence of CAD or diabetes, were significantly associated with higher HDL-C levels. Conclusions: High HDL-C levels (> 40 mg/dL), considered cardio-protective, were seen in women and blacks with ACS more often than in men and whites. Significant differences in HDL-C levels between sexes were seen in whites but not in blacks. Relevance and quality of HDL-C levels in racial groups need further study as this may have important implications in the interpretation of current guidelines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)435-441
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of the Medical Sciences
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • Acute coronary syndrome
  • High density lipoprotein
  • Race
  • Sex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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