The in-depth characterization of sex differences relevant to human physiology requires the judicious use of a variety of animal models and human clinical data. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) represent an important experimental system that bridges rodent studies and clinical investigations. NHP studies have been especially useful in understanding the role of sex hormones in development and metabolism and also allow the elucidation of the effects of pertinent dietary influences on physiology pertinent to disease states such as obesity and diabetes. This chapter summarizes the current state of our understanding of androgen effects on male and female NHP metabolism relevant to hypogonadism in human males and polycystic ovary syndrome in human females. This review will also focus on the interaction between altered androgen levels and dietary restriction and excess, in particular the Westernstyle diet that underlies significant human pathophysiology.