Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the United States. Sex differences, including smaller infarcts in females and greater involvement of immune-mediated inflammation in males may affect the efficacy of immune-modulating interventions. To address these differences, we sought to identify distinct stroke-modifying mechanisms in female vs. male mice. The current study demonstrated smaller infarcts and increased levels of regulatory CD19+CD5+CD1dhi B10 cells as well as anti-inflammatory CD11b+CD206+ microglia/macrophages in the ipsilateral vs. contralateral hemisphere of female but not male mice undergoing 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 96 h of reperfusion. Moreover, female mice with MCAO had increased total spleen cell numbers but lower B10 levels in spleens. These results elucidate differing sex-dependent regulatory mechanisms that account for diminished stroke severity in females and underscore the need to test immune-modulating therapies for stroke in both males and females.
- Anti-inflammatory macrophages
- Middle cerebral artery occlusion
- Regulatory B cells
- Regulatory T cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas