Stepping up to meet the challenge of freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease

Simon Lewis, Stewart Factor, Nir Giladi, Alice Nieuwboer, John Nutt, Mark Hallett

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


There has been a growing appreciation for freezing of gait as a disabling symptom that causes a significant burden in Parkinson’s disease. Previous research has highlighted some of the key components that underlie the phenomenon, but these reductionist approaches have yet to lead to a paradigm shift resulting in the development of novel treatment strategies. Addressing this issue will require greater integration of multi-modal data with complex computational modeling, but there are a number of critical aspects that need to be considered before embarking on such an approach. This paper highlights where the field needs to address current gaps and shortcomings including the standardization of definitions and measurement, phenomenology and pathophysiology, as well as considering what available data exist and how future studies should be constructed to achieve the greatest potential to better understand and treat this devastating symptom.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number23
JournalTranslational Neurodegeneration
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • Computational modeling
  • Freezing of gait
  • Novel paradigms
  • Pathophysiology
  • Phenomenology
  • Standardized definitions and assessments
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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