Surgical outcomes and cultural perceptions in international hypospadias care

Ian S. Metzler, Hiep T. Nguyen, Lars Hagander, Mohamed Jalloh, Ton Nguyen, Serigne Magueye Gueye, Catherine R. Devries, John G. Meara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Purpose This study was designed to assess perceptions of untreated hypospadias and quality of life in culturally disparate low or middle income countries, to highlight the demographic and care differences of patient groups treated for hypospadias in the surgical workshop context, and to evaluate the long-term outcomes achieved by these workshop groups. Materials and Methods Family member perceptions of hypospadias, perioperative process measures and urethrocutaneous fistula rates were compared between 60 patients from Vietnam and Senegal treated for hypospadias through training workshops by local surgeons and pediatric urologists from the U.S. between 2009 and 2012, of whom approximately 42% had previously undergone repair attempts. Results More than 90% of respondents surveyed believed that untreated hypospadias would affect the future of their child at least to some degree. Patient cohorts between the 2 sites differed from each other and published high income country cohorts regarding age, weight for age and frequency of reoperation. Telephone based outcomes assessment achieved an 80% response rate. Urethrocutaneous fistula was reported in 39% and 47% of patients in Vietnam and Senegal, respectively. Conclusions Family members perceived that the social consequences of untreated hypospadias would be severe. Relative to patient cohorts reported in practices of high income countries, our patients were older, presented with more severe defects, required more reoperations and were often undernourished. Urethrocutaneous fistula rates were higher in cohorts from low or middle income countries relative to published rates for cohorts from high income countries. Our study suggests that outcomes measurement is a feasible and essential component of ethical international health care delivery and improvement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)524-529
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • fistula
  • hypospadias
  • male
  • urologic surgical procedures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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