Surgical Treatment in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

Ratnakar Shukla, Priyanka Karagaiah, Anant Patil, Katherine Farnbach, Alex G. Ortega-Loayza, Thrasivoulos Tzellos, Jacek C. Szepietowski, Mario Giulini, Hadrian Schepler, Stephan Grabbe, Mohamad Goldust

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, progressive inflammatory disorder of follicular occlusion with pubertal onset that presents as painful inflammatory nodules, sinus tracts, and tunnelling in apocrine-gland-rich areas, such as the axilla, groin, lower back, and buttocks. The disease course is complicated by contractures, keloids, and immobility and is often associated with a low quality of life. It is considered a disorder of follicular occlusion with secondary inflammation, though the exact cause is not known. Management can often be unsatisfactory and challenging due to the chronic nature of the disease and its adverse impact on the quality of life. A multidisciplinary approach is key to prompt optimal disease control. The early stages can be managed with medical treatment, but the advanced stages most likely require surgical intervention. Various surgical options are available, depending upon disease severity and patient preference. In this review an evidence-based outline of surgical options for the treatment of HS are discussed. Case reports, case series, cohort studies, case-control studies, and Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT)s available in medical databases regarding surgical options used in the treatment of HS were considered for the review presented in a narrative manner in this article.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2311
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number9
StatePublished - May 1 2022


  • apocrine gland
  • follicular occlusion
  • hidradenitis suppurativa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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