The general mechanism of bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) induced MRI contrast following a bolus injection is elaborated. Combining radiolabeled tracer data for the first pass of a bolus injection through the human brain with the application of Wiedemann's law allows us to calculate the lower limit for the time course of the vascular BMS following the injection of any contrast agent. Superparamagnetic Iron oxide particles produce a much larger effect than any mononuclear Ln(III) che‐late. We also calculate the BMS changes occurring after a dilution bolus injection (of isosmolal physiological saline) subsequent to a prior slow infusion of an intravascular contrast agent. This technique bears some resemblance to the increasingly important approach that exploits changes in only the level of blood oxygenation. The calculation indicates that contrast changes after the dilution bolus injection are smaller than those following Ln(III) agent injections but larger than those due to changes in blood oxygenation and suggests a way to possibly enhance the latter. We present an In vivo study demonstrating the dilution bolus injection technique in the mouse brain, and that features its rapid repeatability. Extrapolation of these results to the human, however, indicates that the saline volumes required for venous injections, except possibly for cardiac studies, would be prohibitively large. Smaller, catheter‐delivered arterial bolus injections are feasible. We also suggest a method for using an agent bolus injection to measure the parenchymal BMS, and thus the iron content, of pathologically iron‐loaded tissue.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging