Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire: New Data on Factor Structure and Applicability in a Child Clinical Sample

Michael B. Kozlowski, Dylan Antovich, Sarah L. Karalunas, Joel T. Nigg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The Temperament in Middle ChildhoodQuestionnaire (TMCQ) is one of a family of instruments representing one of the major conceptual models of child temperament. The present study reports new psychometric information on the TMCQ using a larger sample than in prior factor-analytic studies of this instrument. Data from parent ratings of 1,418 children were utilized. The sample of community volunteers included 697 typically developing youth and 721 defined by research diagnostic procedures as having attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Results failed to support the original proposed structure of the TMCQ, but found support for a structurewith 12 subscales that confirmed a substantial portion of the lower order factor structure. However, the intended three-factor higher order structure was not able to be fully recovered. Two-group invariance was supported in the final model, supporting use in studies of typical and atypical development. In conclusion, with some modifications the TMCQ remains a useful research measure at the lower order factor level. The validity of the higher order structure is less clear, likely due to measure-specific limitations, and suggests a need for some refinement to the measure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1081-1092
Number of pages12
JournalPsychological Assessment
Issue number12
StatePublished - Sep 29 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Adhd
  • Exploratory factor analysis
  • Measurement invariance
  • Middle childhood
  • Temperament

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


Dive into the research topics of 'Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire: New Data on Factor Structure and Applicability in a Child Clinical Sample'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this