The role of facial gender confirmation surgery in the treatment of gender dysphoria

Nick Esmonde, Alireza Najafian, Amy Penkin, Jens Urs Berli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The population of transgender patients seeking gender confirmation surgery for gender dysphoria is increasing in the United States. Facial gender confirmation surgery (FGCS) is one of the treatment modalities patients require and is often a combination of soft tissue and cranio-maxilla-facial procedures. Despite evidence of the efficacy of FGCS, there remains some extant controversies to address, such as reimbursement for these procedures, categorization of aesthetic versus functional surgery, and evaluation of outcomes. This review provides a discussion of these topics, as well as the historical and psychosocial issues specific to transgender patients that surgeons should know when providing FGCS. We provide practice pearls for providing affirming transgender healthcare, illustrative patient clinical vignettes, and a discussion of the Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health to help guide surgeons who are interested in providing FGCS to transgender patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1387-1392
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2019


  • Facial feminization
  • Facial surgery
  • Gender dysphoria
  • Transgender

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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