PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of recent developments in the field of systemic osmoregulation, with attention to the brain and kidney. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of pivotal observations underscore the primary importance of transient receptor potential channels in systemic osmoregulation and their involvement constitutes the focus of this review. Recent data suggest that transient receptor potential vanilloid-responsive 4 is a central sensor or effector of systemic hypotonicity, whereas an unidentified variant of transient receptor potential vanilloid-responsive 1 potentially serves an analogous role in systemic hypertonicity. SUMMARY: Members of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-responsive subfamily of transient receptor potential channels are likely to serve as central sensors of systemic anisotonicity.
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