Thiourethane filler functionalization for dental resin composites: Concentration-dependent effects on toughening, stress reduction and depth of cure

M. Goulart, A. P. Fugolin, S. H. Lewis, J. A. Rodrigues, M. C. Erhardt, C. S. Pfeifer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objectives: The aim of this study was to modify the surface of fillers used in dental composites by the synthesis of two novel thiourethane oligomeric silanes, used to functionalize the silica-containing inorganic particles. Several thiourethane silane concentrations were tested during the silanization process to systematically assess the effect of silane coverage on experimental composite conversion, polymerization stress and fracture toughness. Materials and methods: Two different thiourethane silanes were synthesized based either on 1,6-hexanediol-diissocynate (HDDI), or 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl) benzene (BDI). Conventional 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate was used as the control. Glass fillers were silanized with 1, 2 or 4 wt% of each thiourethane silane, then evaluated by thermogravimetrical analysis. Photopolymerizable resin composites were prepared with Bis-GMA/UDMA/TEGDMA and 50 wt% silanized glass filler. Polymerization kinetics and degree of conversion were tested using Near-IR. Bioman was used to test polymerization stress. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA/Tukey's test (α = 5%). Results: The mass of silane coupled to the filler increased with the concentrations of thiourethane in the silanizing solution, as expected. Thiourethane-containing groups exhibited significantly higher degree of conversion compared to control groups, except for BDI 4%. HDDI 4%, BDI 2% and BDI 4% showed significantly lower polymerization stress than control groups. HDDI 4% exhibited significantly higher fracture toughness. Conclusions and clinical significance: Novel filler functionalization with thiourethane silanes may be a promising alternative for improving dental composites properties by significantly increasing the degree of conversion, fracture toughness and reducing the polymerization stress.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number111535
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering C
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • Composite resins
  • Filler functionalization
  • Glass filler
  • Mechanical strength
  • Polymerization stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials


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