Thyroid hormone receptor-β-selective agonist GC-24 spares skeletal muscle type I to II fiber shift

Elen H. Miyabara, Marcelo S. Aoki, Antonio G. Soares, Rodrigo M. Saltao, Cassio M. Vilicev, Marisa Passarelli, Thomas S. Scanlan, Cecilia H. Gouveia, Anselmo S. Moriscot

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


Triiodothyronine (T3) is known to play a key role in the function of several tissues/organs via the thyroid hormone receptor isoforms alpha (TRα) and beta (TRβ). We have investigated the effects of GC-24, a novel synthetic TRβ-selective compound, on skeletal muscle fiber-type determination, cross-sectional area, and gene expression in rat skeletal muscles. For fiber typing, cross sections of soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were stained for myosin ATPase activity at various pHs. Serum T3, T4, and cholesterol levels were also determined. Analysis of highly T3-responsive genes, viz., myosin heavy chain IIa (MHCIIa) and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum adenosine triphosphatase (SERCA1), was performed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Equimolar doses of T3 and GC-24 had a similar cholesterol-lowering effect. T3, but not GC-24, decreased fiber type I and increased fiber type II abundance in soleus and EDL muscles. Conversely, in EDL, both T3 and GC-24 decreased the mean cross-sectional area of type I fibers. MHCIIa gene expression was reduced (approximately 50%) by T3 and unchanged by GC-24. SERCA1 gene expression was strongly induced by T3 (approximately 20-fold) and mildly induced by GC-24 (approximately two-fold). These results show that GC-24 does not significantly alter the composition of skeletal muscle fiber type and further strengthens the putative use of GC compounds as therapeutic agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)233-241
Number of pages9
JournalCell and tissue research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • GC-24
  • Rat (Wistar)
  • Skeletal muscle phenotype and tropism
  • TRβ-agonist
  • Thyroid hormone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Histology
  • Cell Biology


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