Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Psychometric Validation of the English Version of the Postural Awareness Scale

Dana Dharmakaya Colgan, Kaylie Green, Ashley Eddy, Christiane Brems, Karen J. Sherman, Holger Cramer, Barry Oken, Michael Christopher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Purpose: The Postural Awareness Scale (PAS) was developed among a sample of German speakers to measure self-reported awareness of body posture. The first aim of this study was to conduct an English translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the PAS. The second aim was to assess psychometric properties of the English version of the PAS. Methods: Forward and backward translations were conducted. The translated scale was then pretested in a small sample of English-speaking adults (n = 30), followed by cognitive interviews. Finally, consensus of the translated scale was achieved among an expert committee (n = 5), resulting in the Postural Awareness Scale-English Version (PAS-E). Psychometric properties of the PAS-E were investigated among a sample of individuals with chronic pain (n = 301) by evaluating factor structure, reliability, and construct validity. Analyses of variance were conducted to calculate differences in PAS-E scores between specific subgroups (pain conditions, sex, and history of mindfulness practice). Linear regression analyses investigated whether the scores on the PAS-E predicted levels of pain, stress, and mood. Results: The results obtained from an exploratory factor analysis showed a two-factor solution and were supported by a confirmatory factor analysis. The scale demonstrated good internal consistency and satisfactory construct validity. No significant differences related to sex at birth or pain duration were found. Conclusion: PAS-E demonstrated good psychometric properties, and therefore, can and should be used both for research and clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2686-2699
Number of pages14
JournalPain Medicine (United States)
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • Assessment
  • Body Awareness
  • Chronic Pain
  • English Translation
  • Postural Awareness
  • Posture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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