Historically, ankle instability research has focused primarily on the lateral ligament complex. However, more recently there has been an increased attention on the role of the deltoid ligament and syndesmosis in chronic ankle instability. We describe historical perspectives as well as the current state of evidence and techniques for a more comprehensive approach to ankle instability. Level of Evidence: Diagnostic Level V. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
- ankle instability
- chronic ankle pain
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine