Validation of a self-report questionnaire version of the Child Activity Limitations Interview (CALI): The CALI-21

Tonya M. Palermo, Amy S. Lewandowski, Anna C. Long, Christopher J. Burant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

84 Scopus citations


The Child Activity Limitations Interview (CALI) is a measure designed to assess functional impairment due to chronic pain in school-age children. In this study, we present a self-report questionnaire version of the CALI (the CALI-21) that extends the original interview measure. The purpose of this study was to provide internal consistency, cross-informant reliability and construct validity of the CALI-21 on a clinical sample of children and adolescents with chronic pain conditions. One hundred fifty-five children and adolescents (65 males, 90 females; ages 8-18 years, M = 14.31, SD = 2.45) with chronic pain completed questionnaires as part of their clinic intake procedures at their consultation visit in a pediatric pain management clinic. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to measure latent constructs within the broader domain of functional impairment. Results of the exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors representing limitation in Active and Routine activities on both parent and child reports. Parent and child total CALI scores correlated with measures of pain intensity, however, different patterns of correlations emerged between age, pain intensity, depressive symptoms, and the Active and Routine factors. The CALI-21 showed good internal consistency, high cross-informant reliability, and demonstrated construct validity. The CALI-21 provides increased flexibility via the questionnaire format in the assessment of pain-related activity limitations in children. Factor analysis extends information about specific types of activity limitations experienced by children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)644-652
Number of pages9
Issue number3
StatePublished - Oct 31 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Activity limitations
  • Adolescents
  • Children
  • Chronic pain
  • Factor analysis
  • Measurement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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